In most discourses about Russian culture the main focus is usually on 19th century literature, music and art. Many Russian works of literature, art and music show in different ways a considerable influence of folklore. Yet from a Western perspective the role of folklore within Russian culture is scarcely on object of study of analysis, it may well be encountered with some condescension: folklore is seldom being regarded as a self-contained and meaningful cultural phenomenon and is usually being opposed to “high culture”. The circumstance which sets Russian culture, being so influenced by folklore, apart from Western culture is that Russian folk art, folk music, folk costume, legends, fairy tales, etc. were highly developed and due to specific aspects of Russian history had remained authentic until the beginning of the 20th century. Thanks to the high level of folklore writers, poets, composers and artists had an extremely rich, varied and original source they could derive both inspiration and material from. In the Russian cultural tradition folklore is not opposed to high culture, but rather being regarded as an essential part of national heritage, organically intertwined in Russian classical literature, art and music. This has resulted in a different attitude towards folklore, which has been an object for serious scientific studies since the second half of the19th century. In these lecture the author tries to enfold the diversity, importance and role of folklore in the Russian literature, music and arts.