In their studies (2003, 2004 and 2008) Ionin et al. examined English article use by L2-English speakers. They found that speakers of an article-less L1 (Korean and Russian) make mistakes mainly in two of the total four conditions of English article use. By contrast, speakers whose L1 has articles (Spanish) do not show any particular pattern of article misuse. In this study Ionin et al.’s method-ology was used to investigate article use in Dutch by Czech students of Dutch. It was found that Czech learners of Dutch fluctuate between definiteness and specificity in their article use because they overuse the indefinite article in [+def, -spec] condition and they overuse the definite article in [-def, +spec] condition. By analysing data of particular proficiency groups, it was found that article use by Czech learners of Dutch tends to improve as their proficiency increases.